Mount Rinjani or Gunung Rinjani is an active volcano in Indonesia on the island of Lombok. It rises to 3,726 m (12,224 ft), making it the third highest volcano in Indonesia, and similar in height to Mount Fuji. The first historical eruption occurred in September 1847. The most recent eruption of Mount Rinjani was on 10 May 2009. The volcano had started erupting again on 27 April 2009, and the mountain was closed as the eruptions intensified with plumes of smoke and ash as high as 8,000 m.
The 6 km by 8.5 km oval-shaped caldera is filled partially by a crater lake known as Danau Segara Anak (‘Child of the Sea’) and is approximately 2000m above sea level and estimated at being around 200m deep); the caldera also contains hot springs. The eruptions of 1994, 1995, and 1996 have formed a small cone, Gunung Baru (or ‘New Mountain’ – approximately 2300m above sea level) in the center of the caldera and lava flows from these eruptions have entered the lake. This cone has since been renamed Mount Barujari (or ‘New Finger’).
The highlands are forest clad and mostly underdeveloped. The lowlands are highly cultivated. Rice, soybeans, coffee, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, and vanilla are the major crops grown in the fertile soils of the island.
The volcano and the caldera are protected by a national park established in 1997. Tourism is increasingly popular with trekkers able to visit the rim, make their way into the caldera or even to make the more arduous climb to the highest point; fatalities, however, are not uncommon. As of July 2009 the summit route was closed due to volcanic activity.